Coronavirus – Your Questions Answered
There’s a lot of uncertainty and updates are changing by the day. To ensure you are fully supported from an HR perspective, we’ve pulled together some frequently asked questions and our advice relating to each question. We will of course keep a close eye on this ever-changing situation and keep you updated on developments.
Remember, we are here to support you and we will proactively share the latest guidance with you where we can.
We want to help you do the right thing and please reach out to us if you have questions or concerns you would like to discuss with us, please let me know.
Can I claim CJRS now if I haven’t previously?
You and your employees do not need to have benefited from the scheme before to make a claim. You can check if you’re eligible and work out how much you can claim using our CJRS calculator and examples, by searching ‘Job Retention Scheme’ on GOV.UK.
If you’re claiming for the first time, you’ll need:
- a Government Gateway (GG) ID and password – if you don’t already have a GG account, you can apply for one on GOV.UK by searching for ‘HMRC services: sign in or register’
- to be enrolled for PAYE online
- the following information for each furloughed employee you’ll be claiming for:
- National Insurance number
- claim period and amount
- PAYE/employee number.
There’s a list of monthly claims deadlines and a helpful step-by-step guide on GOV.UK, summarising the latest information on CJRS and the steps you need to take to make a claim – you can find these by searching ‘Job Retention Scheme step by step guide’.
Can I include a Christmas bonus in my calculation for the grant?
You can claim for regular payments that you are contractually obliged to pay your employees, including compulsory commission, fees and overtime. However, you cannot claim for discretionary commission, non-contractual bonuses (including tips) and non-cash payments
Can I furlough an employee if they are unable to work due to caring responsibilities?
If an employee asks to be furloughed because they have caring responsibilities resulting from coronavirus, such as caring for children who are at home as a result of school or childcare facilities closing, you can place them on furlough and claim for them under the CJRS.
Can I claim a CJRS grant to pay for holiday leave?
If you have furloughed employees because of the effect of coronavirus on your business, you can claim under the CJRS for periods of paid leave they take while on furlough, including for bank holidays such as Christmas Day or Boxing Day. You should not place employees on furlough just because they are going to be on leave.
If your employee is flexibly furloughed, you can count any time taken as holiday as furloughed hours rather than working hours. This means you can claim 80% of their usual wages for these hours.
If a furloughed employee takes holiday, you should top up their pay to their normal rate in line with the Working Time Regulations. For more information search ‘check if you can claim for your employees’ wages’ on GOV.UK.
An employee is refusing to self-isolate, what should I do?
Where an employee refuses to self-isolate and wishes to return to the workplace, you should first consult with the employee to try and establish the reasons for this, with an aim to resolving any concerns the employee has.
Under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HSWA), an employer is under a duty to provide a safe place of work and protect the health and safety of its employees. If an employer is aware that one of its employees has been instructed to self-isolate via the NHS Test and Trace scheme, but allows or encourages the employee to come into the workplace, the employer could be putting the health and safety of other employees at risk. Therefore, it is likely that the employer would be at risk of being in breach of its duties under the HSWA and other duties and so the employee should understand that they may not be permitted to return to company premises during any period of self-isolation.
We therefore advise employers and employees to work together to try resolve any issues in regards to self-isolation. The most likely reason why an employee will be reluctant to self-isolate is because they will lose out on pay if they are put onto statutory sick pay (SSP). Consider, therefore, whether there is any work that the employee might be able to do from home even if it outside of their usual remit. Alternatively, consider whether the employee is able to work additional hours on their return.
Employees who are asked to self-isolate under the Test and Trace scheme, and are unable to work from home, are entitled to receive SSP. Alternatively, employers may consider offering the employee the option to take paid annual leave if they prefer.
Can the organisations enforce registration to any track and trace system?
No, taking part in the scheme is voluntary for individuals, the government is asking employers to encourage employees to adopt the scheme, follow the guidelines and inform their employer of any request to self-isolate.
What happens if an employee contracts Coronavirus? Do they still get full pay or sick pay?
If an employee contracts Coronavirus, this should be treated in the same way as any other sickness absence in terms of payment. If Company policy normally only pays statutory sick pay (SSP) during sickness absence, then this is what the employee should receive subject to meeting the qualifying criteria. Employees who are self-isolating in accordance with UK and Scottish Government advice, or are advised by then test and tracing service, are also eligible for SSP.
What should I do if an employee is self-isolating, but it has come to my attention they are not adhering to the guidance?
If you have reason to believe that an employee may not be adhering to Government guidance in relation to self-isolation, you are encouraged to engage in open and honest discussion with the employee to discuss your concerns. You should contact HR to discuss the next steps, who will provide advice and support should formal action be necessary under the Company Investigation/Disciplinary Policy.
What happens if an employee needs to self-isolate?
In accordance with UK and Scottish Government advice, if an employee has symptoms, however mild, or is in a household where someone has symptoms, they should self-isolate, as should everyone in their household. These people should not leave their house or go to work and employers should advise them to follow the Government self-isolation advice and ask for a test. If a test is negative, then isolation is no longer required.
If an employee is self-isolating and cannot work form home, pay should be calculated in line with the Company Policy regarding sickness absence.
I have noticed that employees are not adhering to the social distancing, what should I do?
The Company should ensure all employees have access to:
· a clear policy and procedure in relation to social distancing measures
· given the appropriate training and guidance on how to apply the policy and procedure
· access to all the necessary equipment and PPE
You are encouraged to tackle non-conformance immediately and ensure that corrective action is taken. Contact HR if you have concerns with repeated non-conformance. HR will provide the support should formal action be necessary in line with the Company Investigation/Disciplinary Policy.
What does ‘close contact’ mean?
Employers have a duty of care for all employees and visitors on work premises, it is therefore vital that Health and Safety procedures are in place to ensure that all social distancing measures are being taken in accordance with Government guidelines.
Examples of close contact include:
· close face to face contact (under 1 metre) for any length of time – including talking to others or coughing on them
· being within 1 to 2 metres of each other for more than 15 minutes – including travelling in a small vehicle
· spending lots of time in your home
Interaction, which has taken place through a Perspex (or equivalent) screen, will not count as sufficient contact.
Please refer to the Company Policy regarding Covid-19 social distancing measures to ensure social distancing is being adhered to.
One of my employees has been confirmed as having the virus, should we close the workplace?
Where a worker has tested positive for Covid-19 the position is as follows:
· an employee with a confirmed diagnosis should stay at home with immediate effect and you should advise them to follow the Government self-isolation advice.
· employees who could have been exposed to the infected colleague, due to being in close contact with them, should be sent home.
Government advice states those who have been in recent close contact with an infected person should self-isolate, breaking the transmission chain.
One of my employees has arrived at work and I think they might be displaying symptoms of Covid-19, what do I do?
According to NHS guidance the symptoms of Covid-19 are:
· A high temperature (above 37.8 degrees Celsius)
· New, continuous cough
· A loss or change to your sense of smell or taste
If an employee attends work or calls to report they have any of the symptoms listed above, however mild, or is in a household where someone has symptoms, they should self-isolate, as should all in their household.
If the employee develops symptoms whilst at work, you should:
· advise them to leave work
· encourage them to avoid public transport to get home
· advise them to get a test as soon as possible. The test should be done in the first 5 days of having symptoms
· where it is possible, home working should be permitted
· if home working is not possible, discuss with them what they will get paid ie. Company sick pay or SSP
Under the test and trace system, they will be asked to disclose the places they have visited in the 48 hours prior to their symptoms starting, which may include their workplace.
What is a support bubble?
A support bubble is where someone who lives alone (or just with their children) can meet people from 1 other household.
When should employees self-isolate
Employees must self-isolate immediately if:
· they have any symptoms of Covid-19 (a high temperature, a new continuous cough or a loss or change to your sense of smell or taste)
· they have tested positive for Covid-19 – this means they have Covid-19
· staff live with someone who has symptoms or tested positive
· someone in their support bubble has symptoms or tested positive
· they are told to self-isolate by NHS Test and Trace’ in England, ‘Test and Protect’ in Scotland or ‘Test, trace, protect’ in Wales. · they arrive in the UK from a country with a high Covid-19 risk – see GOV.UK: how to self-isolate when you travel to the UK
What is the difference between self-isolation, social distancing and shielding?
Self-isolation is when someone does not leave their home because they have or might have Covid-19.
This helps stop the virus spreading to other people.
Self-isolation is different to:
· Social distancing – this is the general advice for everyone to avoid close contact with other people. Social distancing is to stop the spread of Covid-19, you should ensure all steps have been taken to ensure social distancing measures are in place and all employees who report to you are adhering to these measures.
· Shielding – this is the advice for people at high risk from Covid-19. If an employee is high risk (clinically extremely vulnerable) from Covid-19, they were advised to take extra steps to protect themselves until 1st August 2020. This was called shielding. However, as of 1st August, staff are no longer eligible for SSP based on being advised to shield by the Government. If an individual is unable to work from home, you should help transition them back to work safely and support them with to maintain good hand hygiene and social distancing practice in the workplace.
Please note it is worth considering if there are any local restrictions in place where there is a Covid-19 outbreak, the advice may be different for employees who live, work or study in these areas. See areas with local restrictions on GOV.UK. Link to Gov.uk – Local restrictions
What happens about employer National Insurance and pension contributions for furloughed employees? (Click HERE)
You’ll still need to pay the employer National Insurance and pension contributions on your furloughed employees’ pay. Employees who have been put on furlough will still have to pay National Insurance and tax on their salary as usual
For redundancy consultation what timelines apply? (Click HERE)
So far there have been no government changes to redundancy procedure, instead there have been financial measures seeking to help employers avoid or minimise redundancies. If redundancies are unavoidable the safest approach is to follow normal redundancy procedures, consultation and timelines.
The law does provide a rarely used exception that, in some cases, an employer may be able to justify not meeting the full consultation requirements. Whilst the coronavirus situation is unprecedented, it is not a ‘special circumstance’ in a redundancy context justifying avoidance of consultation. It is extremely difficult to justify cutting down on the redundancy
consultation process; employers should follow consultation procedures in full and not rely on the potential exception.
The following timescales are required when consulting with employees, depending on number of employees being made redundant.
Individual Consultation only – 19 or fewer employees
30 days – 20-99 employees
45 days – 100+ employees
Failure to follow these guidelines leaves the employer vulnerable to extra payments called protective awards of 90 days’ extra pay each.
Do we need to furlough for a minimum of three weeks? (Click HERE)
There is no minimum number of weeks or days that an employee must be on furlough.
However, any claim through the portal will need to cover a period of at least one week unless you are claiming for the first few days or last few days in a month. (You can only claim for a period of fewer than 7 days if the claim period includes either the first or last day of the calendar month, and you have already claimed for the same employee for the period immediately before it.)
Claim periods must start and end within the same calendar month.
Can I furlough myself as a sole director and/or other directors within the business? (Click HERE)
Yes, you can furlough yourself as a director, however, to be eligible for the subsidy, when on furlough, you can not undertake work for or on behalf of the organisation, including the provision of services or generating revenue.
The 80% only covers salaries through PAYE and not dividends.
We would probably recommend having 1 Director remaining on to run any operations, but you can rotate the Directors being furloughed – it has to be a minimum 3-week period on furlough status. However, all Directors can be furloughed, including those Limited Companies with only 1 Director, but technically you can’t then work for the firm, other than to perform their statutory obligations as directors, eg, official legal filings. It’s worth getting some advice on this before proceeding.
One of my employees is currently off on Maternity leave, can they be furloughed? (Click HERE)
If your employee is eligible for Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) or Maternity Allowance, the normal rules apply, and they are entitled to claim up to 39 weeks of statutory pay or allowance.
However, if you offer enhanced (earnings related) contractual pay to women on Maternity Leave, this is included as wage costs that you can claim through the scheme.
Can my employee work for another employer during furlough? (Click HERE)
An employee can, with your permission, work for another employer during furlough. As you are their primary employer, they must ensure they stay in contact and are available for work during this time. There are some vacancies available in retail, food produce and NHS contact centres, and some of your staff may want to offer their services. They cannot perform work for you during the period of furlough. It’s up to you as the employer if you wish to permit them to work for another business during a period of furlough.
What should I do with holiday entitlement for my employees? (Click HERE)
Employees and workers can carry over up to 4 weeks’ paid holiday over a 2-year period, if they cannot take holiday due to coronavirus. We have had a lot of clients worried about the impact of holidays as when the business starts trading as normal, your staff may want to take holidays at a time you’re going to be busy. Remember, it’s up to you to authorise these holidays or decline them and you can now carry over unused entitlement over a 2-year period.
Can I force my employees to take holidays during a period of temporary workplace closure? (Click HERE)
Can I furlough employees that are self-isolating? (Click HERE)
Employees on sick leave or self-isolating should get Statutory Sick Pay, but can be furloughed after this. However, employees who are shielding in line with public health guidance can be placed on furlough if you choose to do so.
Employees on unpaid leave cannot be furloughed, unless they were placed on unpaid leave after 28 February.
I hired an employee that started after 30th October, can I still furlough? (Click HERE)
Unfortunately, you are not able to furlough employees unless you made a PAYE RTI submission to HMRC between 20th March and 30th October 2020. This does not include employees that were re-employed after 23rd September. If you require further advice on what to do in this situation then please email our advice service email@example.com
How do I calculate my employees’ wages if they work irregular hours? (Click HERE)
Where an employee works on a flexible or zero-hour contract and they have been employed for over 12 months prior to being furloughed, employers can claim for the higher of either the same month’s wage from the previous year i.e. April 2019 for April 2020 wages.
If an employee has been employed for less than 12 months, you should work out the employees average monthly earnings since the start of their employment, and you can claim 80% of this.
Do I have to furlough employees’, or can I make redundancies (Click HERE)
The government are recommending employers furlough staff rather than make redundancies. If that’s not feasible, then it’s fine to make redundancies, providing you follow a fair selection process and can demonstrate meaningful consultation. You run the risk of an employment tribunal claim if you furlough some and make others redundant, so please obtain advice before proceeding with redundancies. Employees must have more than two years’ service to make a claim for unfair dismissal, unless it’s linked to protected characteristic under the Equality Act
What if the employee does not agree to be furloughed? (Click HERE)
If the employee does not agree then you will have to proceed with a redundancy process, obviously considering all alternatives to redundancy before making a final decision. Remember that if there are 20 or more employees in one establishment
then it is important to go through collective consultation which means consulting with a union or elected representatives if there is no union for a 30 day period (20-99 employees) or 45 day period (100 or more) and filing an HR1 form. We can help with this where required.
If your employee(s) have less than 2 years’ service and are refusing to be furloughed, you could be able to end their employment without going through a consultation process, but you should seek advice before proceeding with this approach.
What is the definition of a key-worker? (Click HERE)
Current guidance can be found here – https://www.gov.scot/publications/coronavirus—school-and-elc-closures-guidance-on-critical-childcare-provision-for-key-workers
An employee has informed us that they’ve been diagnosed with Coronavirus, do we need to send everyone home and close the business? (Click HERE)
Official guidelines given by the government says that closing the workplace is unnecessary at the moment. The official health protection team will come to do a risk assessment and if results come back that there are no further cases of Coronavirus in the workplace, you can continue as normal.
What do we do if an employee needs time off to look after a dependant with the virus? (Click HERE)
If your employee needs time off to look after a dependant who has contracted the virus, it’s important you authorise this. An employee has no statutory right that you have to pay them in this circumstance but we encourage you to be understanding. If the time off is longer than two days, either allow them to take holidays or work from home if possible, take the time as unpaid or make the time up at a later date.
Do I need to pay an employee if I send them home due to potentially being exposed to the virus (Click HERE)
If you send an employee home who doesn’t have any of the symptoms but has been exposed to the virus, you are expected to pay them their normal full pay. We encourage you to ask employees to work from home if this is an option for your business. We understand in a lot of sectors such as hospitality, retail and manufacturing that this isn’t possible.
Can we stop employees from coming in to work if they’ve been travelling? (Click HERE)
Employees who have visited the affected areas in the last 14 days must self-isolate and let the NHS know by calling 111. This expectation stands even if they don’t present the symptoms. This information is changing regularly so please keep an eye on updates from the Government site – https://bit.ly/2IQeeR6 as most travel has now been restricted.
Can an employee refuse to travel for work? (Click HERE)
We encourage you to cancel all but essential travel if your employees are at a higher risk to contracting the virus. Alternatively, you can have meeting via video call or a phone call.
Can we stop staff from travelling to affected areas? (Click HERE)
You have no control in what an employee chooses to do outside of their working hours. However, you can educate staff on the potential risks in traveling to affected areas. There are now restrictions on travel so the prospect of people travelling outside the UK is now significantly reduced.
If an employee’s holiday is cancelled due to the travel restrictions, can they cancel their annual leave and take this later (Click HERE)
If the holiday destination or airline have restrictions imposed and your employee cannot travel, you should where possible agree to allow them to take the leave at a later date. Your employees should carefully investigate travel insurance policies.
What do I pay my staff if they are sick? (Click HERE)
Existing contractual arrangements will remain in place. If you don’t currently pay Company Sick Pay, Statutory Sick Pay (SSP) will apply.
Normally, SSP was not paid for the first 3 days of illness. The government has confirmed that SSP will be paid from day one, as part of its emergency Coronavirus legislation – further details on this are to be confirmed. The latest advice as at 16 March 2020 was that if you or any of your household have the symptoms, you must self-isolate for 14 days. As such, this time off will be recorded as sickness absence.
The government plans to help small and medium-sized businesses and employers (fewer than 250 employees) cope with the extra costs of paying COVID-19 related SSP by refunding eligible SSP costs. The refund will be cover up to two weeks per eligible employee who has been off work because of COVID-19.
SSP is currently £94.25 each week rising to £95.85 from 6 April 2020 in line with some of the other employment law changes in April.
Please ensure you keep records for all sickness as you currently do.
If my employees are on a zero-hour contract, do I have to pay them if they have to self-isolate? (Click HERE)
Some employees with zero-hour contracts are at least entitled to statutory sick pay. However, many other people with this contract won’t be paid at all unless you decide to pay them voluntarily.
SSP is only available to employees who earn a certain amount. In addition, staff with zero-hour contracts will only receive SSP if they earn more than an average of £118 per week before tax over an 8-week period.
Normally, SSP was not paid for the first 3 days of illness. The government has confirmed that SSP will be paid from day one, as part of its emergency Coronavirus legislation – further details on this are to be confirmed.
Please ensure you keep records for all sickness as you currently do.
I’ve heard that we’ve to limit social interaction. How can I do this in the workplace? (Click HERE)
It’s up to you take reasonable steps here and look at testing your business continuity plans. We’ve been advising clients over the last few days to encourage home working where possible, splitting breaks and keeping the number of staff in shared kitchen areas to a minimum at the one time and ensuring regular cleaning of shared areas takes place.
The advice on this may change so it’s important to keep up to date with the latest guidance. If you can limit the number of people coming into work and introduce home working for those that can, that would be a good help.
Where you haven’t tried home working before, you might want to check with your IT and telecoms providers around options here – the technology is there for most office roles to be performed at home with minimal disruption to your business.
I’ve heard we might need to close our business for a period of time and heard the phrase short-time working and layoffs – what does this mean?
Lay-offs and short-time working are rarely used legal provisions which normally cover a situation where there is not enough work for your employees.
· Lay-offs – an employer can ask an employee to stay at home and not attend work or be paid for a temporary period.
· Short-time Working – an employer requires their employee to work less than their normal contractual hours, for example reducing from 5 days to 3 days per week.
You can only implement lay-offs or short-time working if there is a clause in the contract of employment to do so. If there is no clause in the contract for these provisions, then you can ask your employees for consent to a period of lay-off or short-time working at that time. Your employees may agree to this if they feel their only other alternative may be redundancy.
You cannot impose lay-offs or short-time working without agreement.
What do my employees get paid if we introduce lay-offs?
Employees with at least one month’s service who fall within the criteria will be entitled to a small fixed statutory guarantee payment to partially compensate them for the reduction in salary. Employees who are affected for longer periods may be entitled to redundancy pay. To do so, your employees must resign with written notice of their intention to claim this. You can avoid redundancies if you can guarantee employees 13 weeks consecutive weeks of work within 4 weeks of receiving the employees written notice.
Your employees are entitled to be paid a maximum of £29 per day for 5 days in any 3-month period. If your employees earn less than £29 a day, they will get their normal daily rate. If they work part-time, their entitlement is worked out proportionally.
Who pays for this if the Government tell me I have to close and I’m unable to provide work for my staff?
In the current situation, if you are forced to close to prevent the spread of the Coronavirus, you will still have to pay employees in most cases. The Government have created a fund to help businesses during this period of time, and you may be eligible for support, but this is something you will need to review.
Further information on the help available to businesses can be found here: https://bit.ly/2TQVmaS
As things stand, you as the employer are required to pay your staff.
Lay-offs and short-time working could give you flexibility and savings on salaries during a temporary closure but clearly will impact on morale. The current situation is unprecedented, and people are already extremely anxious – it’s important to display empathy during such discussions and fully explain the reasons behind such a proposal.
Help for your Employees
Show care and compassion for your employees – things will recover and it’s important to do the right thing.
Banks including Royal Bank of Scotland, Lloyds and TSB are to offer repayment holidays on mortgages and loans, as part of relief measures – signpost your employees where you can.
We’ve seen a huge drop in business and indications are this will continue for some time. How do we go about making redundancies?
We’ve got some information on redundancy in our client portal.
Employment legislation still applies during these difficult times, and you still need to
consult your employees. Consultation is when you sit down with employees to explain your planned changes and get their feedback and input. You need to explain the business reason for consulting with them.
You must discuss your planned changes with each employee who could be affected. This can include employees who are not actually losing their jobs.
You must sit down with each employee individually to explain changes and get their ideas and feedback. The meeting can take place over the phone if you both agree to it and there is a clear need, for example if someone works remotely, or in the current situation where they cannot attend the workplace.
Need more help?
The Scottish Government have announced the following support for businesses: A business helpline has been set up. The number to call is 0300 303 0660.
The helpline will be open Monday to Friday 8.30am to 5.30pm. Callers should select option one to speak to the COVID-19 team.
- 75% rates relief for retail, hospitality and leisure sectors with a rateable value of less than £69,000 from 1 April 2020
- £80m fund to provide grants of at least £3,000 to small businesses in sectors facing the worst economic impact of Covid-19
- 1.6% rates relief for all properties across Scotland, effectively reversing the planned below inflation uplift in the poundage from 1 April 2020
- Fixed rates relief of up to £5,000 for all pubs with a rateable value of less than £100,000 from 1 April 2020
Businesses should use the helpline to get the information on how to access the grants.
The HR Booth – We’re here for you
We appreciate these are challenging and precedented times. We are here to help you as much as we can – we’re in the HR world as we want to make a difference to businesses and help you do the right thing. Supporting you is our priority, and we’ll keep you updated with key information as and when we can and provide advice to safeguard your business.
We are working remotely and attending only essential meetings to reduce the risk to our team, ensuring we are there to support you.
You can reach us on 01383 668178 or email – firstname.lastname@example.org
Keep an eye on our blog as we’ll keep you updated as best we can over the coming weeks.